## Thursday, January 15, 2009

### A Preview of the Contest: Probability Investigation with Replacement

Don't forget to email me if you want your students to participate in the first MathNotations online math contest on Tue Feb 3rd. There is still time! Look here for info.

There may not be a probability question on the first contest but the following gives you a flavor of the type of multi-part question I'm talking about -- an investigation in more depth.

You will find many variations of the following problem in texts. From experience we know that the student needs to have numerous experiences with these. How do many students do on this topic when the exam question is slightly different from the ones reviewed in class!

THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
Five cards are numbered 1 through 5 (different number on each card). Typical scenario, right?
George chooses cards randomly one at a time. After he selects a card, he marks a dot on the card, then puts it back (replacement!) in the pile of 5 cards, reshuffles them and draws the next card and so on. The game continues until he selects one of the "marked" cards.

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY

In the long run, how many draws would you "expect" it to take for the game to end?

With five cards, what do you think most students would guess? Draw three? Draw four? I think asking this initial question is crucial. In most cases, we want the mathematical result to be reasonable and to roughly agree with our intuition (not always of course, there are paradoxes in math which are counterintuitive!).

THE INVESTIGATION

Part I
What is the probability that George chooses a "marked" card on his second draw for the first time? On the 3rd draw for the first time? 4th draw? 5th draw? 6th draw?
Another way to ask these are: What is the probability that the game "ends" after 2 draws? 3 draws, etc.

Part II
"On average", how many cards would George need to draw to get one of the marked cards for the first time?

Note: In more technical language we are asking for the expected number of draws before the game ends?

Normally, I don't publish answers to these questions but, in this case I will give partial results. Please check for accuracy.

The probability the game ends after 3 draws is 8/25 or 32%.
The expected value for the number of draws for the game to end is approximately 3.51. What does this mean!